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An alternative measure, gross present value of premiums written PV premiums , reflects future installment premiums discounted to their present value, as well as upfront premiums, but only for business originated in the period. Business ceded through reinsurance placed by a third party is excluded from PV premiums. The Company considers PV premiums to be the better indicator of a given period's insurance origination activity because a substantial portion of the Company's premiums is collected in installments, a practice typical of the asset-backed business.
To calculate PV premiums, management estimates the life of each transaction that has installment premiums and discounts the future installment premium payments. The present value of the future net interest margin from the Company's financial products business represents the present value of the difference between the estimated interest to be received on the investments of the Company's guaranteed investment contract GIC operations and the estimated interest to be paid on GICs issued over the estimated life of each transaction, giving effect to swaps and other derivatives which convert fixed-rate assets and liabilities to floating rates.
PV premiums and the present value of the future net interest margin from the Company's financial products segment are collectively referred to as PV originations. The Company calculates the discount rate for PV originations as the average pre-tax yield on its investment portfolio for the previous three years. Accordingly, year-to-year comparisons of PV originations are affected by the application of different discount factors.
The rate for both and was 5. Management intends to revise the discount rate in future years according to the same formula, in order to reflect interest rate changes. Average premium rates were strong, reflecting higher spreads and a healthy appetite for bond insurance. For the second quarter of , the Company's U. While the decline in volume reflects FSA's selective approach to the collateralized debt obligation CDO and consumer receivable sectors in the current credit environment, FSA found increasing opportunities to insure transactions that met its underwriting standards at favorable returns.
The average premium rate was boosted in part by premiums related to amendments of existing business. In the United Kingdom, the Company closed three infrastructure transactions. The Company also completed a number of international asset-backed transactions. PV premiums increased despite the decline in par insured primarily because of a shift in the business mix. Long-tenor public infrastructure transactions represented a greater portion of par insured. Net premiums earned for the quarter grew The Company's effective tax rate on investment income was 9.
Capital gains and losses are generally a by-product of the normal investment management process and could vary substantially from period to period. Since the reserves are based upon estimates, there can be no assurance that the ultimate liability will not differ from such. The Company will continue, on an ongoing basis, to monitor these reserves and may periodically adjust such reserves, upward or downward, based on the Company's actual loss experience, its future mix of business and future economic conditions. Expenses increased primarily as a result of the lowering of the percentage of expenses deferred, based upon a study performed by the Company of its origination costs, and higher personnel costs.
A portion of FSA's business has been in the form of insured CDS referencing diversified pools of corporate obligations. These transactions have generally been underwritten with Triple-A or higher levels of credit protection before our guaranty. The gain or loss created by estimated fair value adjustments will rise or fall each quarter based on estimated market pricing of highly rated swap guarantees and is not expected to be an indication of potential claims under FSA's guaranty.
Fair value is defined as the amount at which an asset or a liability could be bought or sold in a current transaction between willing parties. The fair value is determined based upon quoted market prices, if available. If quoted market prices are not available, as is the case primarily with CDS on pools of assets, then the determination of fair value is based upon internally developed estimates. Management applies judgment when developing these estimates and considers factors such as current prices charged for similar agreements, performance of underlying assets, changes in internal shadow ratings, the level at which the deductible has been set and FSA's ability to obtain reinsurance for its insured obligations.
Due to changes in these factors, the gain or loss from derivative instruments can vary substantially from period to period. One of the things that motivated and motivates me is my desire to make the very best of my life as a single person.
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One of the best parts of being single is having personal freedom. So, I decided to celebrate my solitary status to the max by creating the lifestyle of my dreams, i. I hear too many black women complaining about the man shortage. Life is too short, unpredictable and fleeting, to be crying in your beer. Of course, the Black Travel writing conference held at Howard University in as well as the travel writing conference held annually at Book Passages Bookstore in Corte Madera, California. If you can get your foot in the door, have a nice portfolio and a flexible schedule, assignments often come your way.
It helps to have a niche. For example, the fact that I can handle last minute assignments has helped me develop a relationship with several national webzines and national magazines. Believe or not, many of my contacts, I got from just cold calls.
For example, I contacted the executive editor of bet. They liked my work and assigned me another story and another until I became a regular contributor. I have a wonderful working relationship with bay area based professional editor, Doug Childers. He helps me pull together my stories before I submit them to magazine editors. I found him through Editcetera. Wow, I wish I could—I am still trying to figure that out for myself. It seems like just as soon as I get a contact at a magazine, that person gets transferred, or the magazine has some big shake-up or something.
But freelance travel writing is truly a numbers game. I am a lawyer by profession and my avocation is travel writing. A few of the full-time travel writers in our travel writing club make a very handsome living at this but one of them told me that she attributes her success to having at least queries out at any given time. I thought I was doing something when I would send out Our association, Bay Area Travel Writers, is a network of accomplished travel writers and photographers. We meet monthly and our gatherings provide a lively exchange of information among our widely traveled and published colleagues.
Speakers from tourist boards and destinations make presentations to inform members of travel trends and news. We also hold panel discussions on such subjects as marketing, publishing and photography. Here is another podcast on the nuts and bolts of becoming a travel writer. These days, thanks to travel blogs and instantaneous travel guides, just about anyone can be a travel writer.
The travel writers discuss the history, current state and future of travel writing with people who have made their careers writing about far-off places.
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What are their thoughts on the craft, and what are their hopes for the genre in years to come? For my 40th birthday, I gave myself a magnificent and magical 6-month sojourn around the world. During my 17 hour return flight to the United States from Indonesia, in a jet lagged stupor, I thought to myself, Wow, what an amazing trip. There must be a way to make travel a permanent part of my life. Shapeshifting from a travel writer to a travel media professional has been an odyssey and adventure, the ingredients of which have included sheer luck, shameless self-promotion as well as the creation of a readiness for such a transition.
She said offered me the opportunity because she said that they liked my joie de vivre, obvious love for travel, knowledge base and the enthusiasm with which I conveyed information. I have been working with them off and on since then. I approached him to tell him how much I liked his show and we got into a spirited conversation about our love of travel. A few minutes later, he invited me to appear on his show and I have been working with him and his staff off and on since then.
She invited me to present a proposal, which I did. She approved it and I became one of the keynote speakers in their six city, national conference series. Setting the stage for a successful expansion into broadcast travel media world may includes some or all of the following:. An obvious love for travel, a zest for living and the ability to convey those energies in a passionate, upbeat and articulate way.
The promotion of your website and getting it properly positioned in major search engines, such as Google. As the internet continues to take a big bite out of the publishing industry, it is becoming increasing difficult to get books, photos and articles published thereby requiring many of us to be creatively diversified in the pursuit of sharing our travels.
I have chosen radio, lecturing and television as the avenues to expand my horizons and they have proven to be quite satisfying, challenging, enriching and fun. Having a story to tell is to have a place in the world. Before you go on your adventure, pick your angle. It is this special angle that will be necessary to grab the interest of a travel editor. Know who you are! Are you a woman travelling alone through China? Then that may be your angle, your expertise. Perhaps you are a woman physician travelling alone through China.
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Suddenly more markets open up. Are you a culinary expert who loves the tastes of the countries you visit?tailonornalis.gq
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Lots of newspapers have food sections and there are many magazines dedicated to scrumptious stories from around the globe. Editors are very busy people. The easier you can make their job the more chance you have of being published. Before sending a query to anyone, be sure to read their writers guidelines.
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